Low self-discharge, long shelf life
Lithium batteries are available in many different versions, which differ in terms of the cathode, electrolyte and separator being used. They are available in different designs and sizes to accommodate a wide range of applications. Because of their high voltage of 3 volts, their high capacity, the wide temperature range, and long shelf life due its low self-discharge they have a wide range of applications.
Main fields of application are cameras, medical devices, toys, LED flashlights and of course any form of memory back-up.
Lithium is an ideal (negative) electrode material since it has the lowest potential of all chemical elements and therefore the highest possible cell voltage. Lithium manganese dioxide batteries (LiMnO2) with a voltage of 3 volts are widely used. This type is mainly used in electronic devices and as a backup battery for motherboards. The advantage over lithium batteries with a liquid cathode (LiSO2, LiSOCl2, LiSO2Cl2) is the lower passivation of the anode, which helps avoid voltage drops at the beginning of the load (voltage delay).
Lithium carbon fluoride mono cells (Li(CF)n), likewise with a voltage of 3 volts, are also widely used. Benefits include further increased durability and an extended temperature range with a lower self-discharge. A disadvantage is the lower current carrying capacity which means these cells are mainly used in the field of memory backup.